Hemley et Mao: Bio-bibliographie (anglais)
États-Unis - États-Unis/Chine
Russell Hemley et Ho-kwang Mao
Prix Balzan 2005 pour la physique des minéraux
Pour le remarquable impact de leurs travaux qui ont conduit à des progrès fondamentaux, tant sur le plan théorique qu’expérimental, dans le domaine des minéraux soumis à des conditions physiques extrêmes. Formant un groupe de travail extrêmement efficace, Russell Hemley et Ho-kwang Mao ont contribué pendant vingt ans à la recherché au plus haut niveau. Ils ont mis au point des techniques permettant d’étudier le comportement d’une vaste gamme de matériaux, parmi lesquels l’hydrogène, le “minéral” le plus abondant dans l’univers. Les résultats de leurs recherches ont apporté une contribution fondamentale à notre compréhension de la nature.
RUSSELL J. HEMLEY, born on 26 October 1954 in Berkeley, California, is a US citizen.
Senior Staff Scientist at the Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, since 2003 Director of the Carnegie/DOE Alliance Center (CDAC). He received his BA (1977) from Wesleyan University, his MA (1980) and his Ph.D. (1983) from Harvard University. After a post-doctoral fellowship in theoretical chemistry at Harvard (1983-1984), he became a Carnegie Fellow (1984-1986) and a Research Associate (1986-1987) at the Geophysical Laboratory. In 1987 he was appointed as a Staff Scientist at the Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington. He was Visiting Professor at the Johns Hopkins University (1991-1992) and at the École Normale Supérieure, Lyon (1996, 1999).
Among his honours and memberships in professional societies we would mention the Hillebrand Medal of the American Chemical Society (2003) and the Mineralogical Society of America Award (1990). In 1997 he was elected as a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and in 2001 as a member of the US National Academy of Sciences. He has been a member of the Phi Beta Kappa Society (since 1977), and Fellow of the Mineralogical Society of America (1990), the American Physical Society (1996) and the American Geophysical Union (1997).
He has lectured at virtually every major university in North America, Europe and Japan, organized successful international courses and symposia, and has collaborations with international laboratories and institutes throughout the world, including Europe’s first Centre for Science of Extreme Condition at Edinburgh.
Russell J. Hemley has published more than 430 papers, of which approximately 100 have been in high impact journals such as Science, Nature, and Physical Review Letters. He has edited four books, one of which, Ultrahigh-Pressure Mineralogy, Reviews in Mineralogy, Vol. 37, Washington, D.C., Mineralogical Society of America, 1998, is the standard reference on high-pressure mineral physics. He has also spearheaded new methods for the synthesis of diamond and has seven patents (awarded and pending) related to diamond and superhard materials.
HO-KWANG (DAVID) MAO, born in Shanghai, China, in 1941, is a US citizen.
Senior Staff Scientist at the Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington.
He received his BS from the National Taiwan University, Taipei (1963), and his MS (1966) and Ph.D. (1968) from the University of Rochester. In 1968 he became Postdoctoral Fellow and later Staff Member at the Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington (since 1972). Currently he is also Visiting Professor at the Department of Geophysical Sciences and James Franck Institute, University of Chicago; Einstein Professor of the Chinese Academy of Sciences; Director of High Pressure Collaborative Access Team (HPCAT) at Advanced Photon Source; Director of National Research Center for High Pressure at Jilin University (China); Associate Director of the Carnegie/DOE Alliance Center (CDAC) and Associate Director of the high-pressure instrument (SNAP) at Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
He is the recipient of the Gregori Aminoff Prize in Crystallography (2005) from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Roebling Medal (2005) from the Mineralogical Society of America, the Arthur L. Day Prize and Lectureship from the US National Academy of Sciences (1990), the P. W. Bridgman Gold Medal Award (1989) from the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science & Technology (AIRAPT) and the Mineralogical Society of America Award (1979). He was elected as a member of the US National Academy of Sciences in 1993, a member of the Academia Sinica (Republic of China) in 1994, and Foreign Member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (People’s Republic of China) in 1996. He was elected as Fellow of the American Geophysical Union, the American Physical Society, the Geochemical Society in America, the European Association for Geochemistry and the Mineralogical Society of America.
Ho-kwang Mao has published about 620 scientific articles documenting the properties of Earth, planetary and technological materials at high compressions.
Some of the papers published jointly in 2005 by Russell J. Hemley and Ho-kwang Mao are:
– Lin, J.F., W. Sturhahn, J. Zhao, G. Shen, H.K. Mao and R.J. Hemley, Sound velocities of hot dense iron: Birch’s law revisited, Science, 308, 1892 (2005)
– Mao, W.L., Y. Meng, G. Shen, V.B. Prakapenka, A.J. Campbell, D.L. Heinz, J. Shu, R. Caracas, R.E. Cohen, Y. Fei, R.J. Hemley and H.K. Mao, Iron-rich silicates in the Earth’s D”, Layer, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 102, 9751 (2005)
– Ding, Y., H. Liu, J. Xu, C.T. Prewitt, R.J. Hemley and H.K. Mao, Zone-axis diffraction study of pressure induced inhomogeneity in single-crystal Fe1-xO, Appl. Phys. Lett., 87, 041912 (2005)
– Lin, J.F., V. Struzhkin, S.D. Jacobsen, M.Y. Hu, P. Chow, J. Kung, H. Liu, H.K. Mao and R.J. Hemley, Spin transition of iron in magnesiowüstite in the Earth’s lower mantle, Nature, 436, 377 (2005)
– Song, Y., Z. Liu, R.J. Hemley, H.K. Mao and D.R. Herschbach, High-pressure vibrational spectroscopy of sulfur dioxide, J. Chem. Phys., 122, 174511 (2005)
– Okuchi, T., G.D. Cody, H.K. Mao and R.J. Hemley, Hydrogen bonding and dynamics of methanol by high-pressure diamond anvil cell NMR, J. Chem. Phys., 122, 244509 (2005)
– Mora, A.E., J.W. Steeds, J.E. Butler, C.S. Yan, H.K. Mao and R.J. Hemley, Direct evidence of interaction between dislocations and point defects in diamond, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a), 202, R69-R71 (2005)
– Degtyareva, O., E. Gregoryanz, M. Somayazulu, H.K. Mao and R.J. Hemley, Crystal structures of superconducting phases of S and Se, Phys. Rev. B, 71, 214104 (2005)
– Goncharov, A.F., V.V. Struzhkin, H.K. Mao and R.J. Hemley, Spectroscopic evidence for broken symmetry transitions in dense lithium up to megabar pressures, Phys. Rev. B, 71 18414 (2005)
– Merkel, S., J. Shu, P. Gillet, H.K. Mao and R.J. Hemley, X-ray diffraction study of the single crystal elastic moduli of e-Fe up to 30 GPa, J. Geophys. Res., 10, B05201 (2005)
– Jacobsen, S.D., J.F. Lin, R.J. Angel, G. Shen, V.B. Prakapenka, P. Dera, H.K. Mao and R.J. Hemley, Single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of wüstite and magnesiowüstite at lower-mantle pressures, J. Synchrotron Rad., 12, 577 (2005)
– Lin, J.F., E. Gregoryanz, V.V. Struzhkin, M. Somayazulu, H.K. Mao and R.J. Hemley, Melting behavior of H2O at high pressures and temperatures, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L11306 (2005)
– Gregoryanz, E., O. Degtyareva, M. Somayazulu, R.J. Hemley and H.K. Mao, Melting of sodium, Phys. Rev. Lett., 94, 185502 (2005)
– Chen, X.J., V.V. Struzhkin, Z. Wu, M. Somayazulu, J. Qian, S. Kung, A.N. Christensen, Y. Zhao, R.E. Cohen, H.K. Mao and R.J. Hemley, Hard superconducting nitrides, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 102, 3198 (2005)
– Hemley, R.J., H.K. Mao and V.V. Struzhkin, Synchrotron radiation and high pressure: new light on materials under extreme conditions, J. Synch. Radiation, 12, 135 (2005)
– Ding, Y., J. Xu, C.T. Prewitt, R.J. Hemley, H.K. Mao, J.A. Cowan, J. Zhang, J. Qian, S.C. Vogel, K.A. Lokshin and Y. Zhao, Variable pressure-temperature neutron diffraction of wüstite Fe1-xO: Absence of long-range magnetic order to 20 GPa, App. Phys. Lett., 86, 052505 (2005)
– Degtyareva, O., E. Gregoryanz, M. Somayazulu, P. Dera, H.K. Mao and R.J. Hemley, Novel chain structures in group VI elements, Nature Materials, 4, 152 (2005)
– Cai, Y.Q., H.K. Mao, P.C. Chow, J.S. Tse, Y. Ma, S. Patchkovskii, J.F. Shu, V. Struzhkin, R.J. Hemley, H. Ishii, C.C. Chen, I. Jarrige, C.T. Chen, S.R. Shieh, E.P. Huang and C.C. Kao, Ordering of hydrogen bonds in high-pressure lowtemperature H2O, Phys. Rev. Lett., 94, 025502 (2005)
– Mao, W.L., V.V. Struzhkin, H.K. Mao and R.J. Hemley, Pressure-temperature stability of the van der Waals compound (H2)4CH4, Chem. Phys. Lett., 402, 66 (2005)
– Okuchi, T., R.J. Hemley and H.K. Mao, Radio frequency probe with improved sensitivity for diamond anvil cell nuclear magnetic resonance, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 76, 026111 (2005)