Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade

2020 Balzan Prize for Human Rights

For his fundamental theoretical and jurisprudential contributions to the definition and creation of a global juridical order based on the principle that all of humanity must constitute the subject of an international legal system open to individual appeals to justice and that may also be imposed upon nation-states.

Biographical and Bibliographical Data

Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade, born in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, on 17 September 1947 (*1947 – †2022). LL.B. (Minas Gerais, First Prize in Civil Law, 1969); LL.M. in International Law (Cambridge, 1973); Ph.D. in International Law (Cambridge, 1977, with a thesis on “Developments in the Rule of Exhaustion of Local Remedies in International Law”, awarded the Yorke Prize).
Judge of the International Court of Justice (since 2009); Judge (1995-2006) and President (1999-2004) of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights.
Emeritus Professor of International Law of the University of Brasília, Brazil (2010). Professor (Full Professor/Professeur titulaire) of Public International Law of the University of Brasília (1978-2009) and of the Rio Branco Diplomatic Academy of Brazil (1979-2009).
Doctor Honoris Causa, of several Universities: Central University of Chile, Santiago, Chile (2003); Catholic University of Peru, Lima (2003); American University of Paraguay, Asunción (2004); National University of La Plata, Argentina (2005); University Panteion of Athens, Greece (2014); Autonomous University of Madrid (UAM), Spain (2015); University Kiit of Bhubaneswar, India (2017); Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil (2018); National University of Tucumán, San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina (2019).
Honorary Professor of International Law, Utrecht University (2010). Honorary Fellow, University of Cambridge (Sidney Sussex College, 2011). Honorary Visiting Professor, University of Rosario, Bogotá, Colombia (2005). Honorary Professor, Universidad Nacional Mayor of San Marcos, Lima, Peru (2001). Honours and prizes, from various Universities, International Institutes and Academic Societies in several countries.
Lecturer at the Hague Academy of International Law, 2005 session (General Course on Public International Law, published in Vols. 316 and 317 (2005) of the Hague Academy’s Recueil des Cours); and in the 1987 and 2015 sessions, as well as in several external sessions of the Hague Academy of International Law; Lecturer at the European University Institute, Florence (General Course, 2007). From 1981 to 2019, Lecturer at the annual Courses of the OAS Inter-American Juridical Committee, Rio de Janeiro; at the International Institute of Human Rights, Strasbourg (1988-2019); Washington College of Law, American University (2003-2019), among others.
Between 1982 and 2019, Visiting Professor at various universities of Latin America, United States, Europe and Asia, among which: the University of Los Andes, Mérida (Venezuela); University of Milan; University of Paris-II; University of Ferrara; Columbia University; University of Notre Dame; University of La Plata, Argentina; Autonomous University of Madrid (UAM); University of Paris-I (Panthéon-Sorbonne); University of Murcia.
Between 1982 and 2005, Guest Lecturer at the Universities of Milan, Salerno, Warsaw, Lisbon, Nottingham, UNAM/Mexico, Keio/Tokyo, Hiroshima, Kyoto, and at diplomatic academies in several countries.
Between 2010 and 2019, Guest Lecturer also at several European and Asian universities among which the Catholic University of Milan; University of Oslo; of Coimbra; Catholic University of Louvain; University of Vilnius, Lithuania; Université Libre de Bruxelles and University of Ghent (Chair “Henri Rolin”, 2015); Autonomous University of Madrid (UAM), Spain; Escuela Libre del Derecho, Iberoamerican University; Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de Mexico (ITAM); European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), Strasbourg, France (2018); European Centre for Research and Training in Human Rights and Humanitarian Law and Town Hall of Nafplion, in Nafplion, Greece (2018); University of Seville, Spain (2018); Law Faculty of the University of Provence Aix-Marseille, France (2018); Constitutional Court in Riga, Latvia (2019); University of Tucumán, Argentina (2019).
Legal Adviser to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Brazil (1985-1990); Delegate of Brazil to several international Conferences (UN, OAS, and others), including the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties between States and International Organizations (Deputy Head of the Delegation, Vienna, 1986), and II World Conference on Human Rights (Vienna, 1993). Executive Director of the Inter-American Institute of Human Rights (1994-1996). Legal Adviser to projects of UNEP (Nairobi, 1990-1992), UNDP (1988 and 1990), UNHCR (1994, 2004 and 2014), ICRC (1997-2000), UNESCO (1997); member of the OAS Commission of Jurists for Nicaragua (1993-1994). Member of the Curatorium of the Hague Academy of International Law (since 2004); Member of the Institut de Droit International (since 1997); Member of the Brazilian Academy of Juridical Letters; Honorary President of the Brazilian Institute of Human Rights.

His most representative works include

El acceso directo del individuo a los tribunales internacionales de derechos humanos, 2002.
Tratado de Direito Internacional dos Direitos Humanos, vol. I, 2nd ed. 2003; vol. II, 1st ed., 1999, vol. III, 1st ed., 2003.
Evolution du droit international au droit des gens : L’accès des individus à la justice, 2008.
International Law for Humankind: Towards a New Jus Gentium, 2010. The new 3rd edition builds on the revised and adapted text of a General Course on Public International Law delivered in 2005 at The Hague Academy of International Law. Trans. French.
The Access of Individuals to International Justice. Collected Courses of the Academy of European Law. English edition, 2011.
The Construction of a Humanized International Law: A Collection of Individual Opinions, 1991-2013, 2013-2018 (vols.1 & 2).
The Construction of a Humanized International Law: A Collection of Individual Opinions 2013-2016, 2018 (vol. 3).
El Ejercicio de la Función Judicial Internacional: Memorias de la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos, 2018.

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