Bio-bibliographie

USA

Harmon Craig

Balzan Preis 1998 für Geochemie

Für seine Pionierleistungen auf dem Gebiet der Erdwissenschaften, wobei er die unterschiedlichen Methoden der isotopischen Geochemie anwendet, um grundlegende wissenschaftliche Probleme und solche von unmittelbarer Bedeutung für die Atmosphäre, die Hydrosphäre und die Lithosphäre zu lösen.

HARMON CRAIG, geboren am 15. März 1926 in New York, ist Staatsburger der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika.

Gegenwärtige Position: Research Professor für Geochemie und Ozeanographie am Graduate Department und an der Geological Research Division, an der Scripps Institution of Oceanography und am Revelle College, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla.

Wissenschaftliche Laufbahn und Forschungen: Research Associate, Enrico Fermi Institute for Nuclear Studies, University of Chicago, 1951-1955, seit 1955 an der Scripps Institution of Oceanography,

University of California; Präsident des Department of Earth Sciences, UCSD, und der Division of Earth Sciences, SIO, 1965- 1968.

Gastprofessor an den Universitäten Pisa (Laboratorium für Nukleargeologie) und Bern (lnstitut für Physik).

1971-1988: Herausgeber der Earth and Planetary Science Letters,

1987-1997: Redaktionsmitglied des Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research,

Träger zahlreicher amerikanischer und internationaler Auszeichnungen.

Wissenschaftlicher Leiter von ungefähr 70 Schiffs- und Landexpeditionen.

Zu seinen wichtigsten Veröffentlichungen zählen:

– H. Craig, The geochemistry of the stable carbon isotopes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 3, pp. 53-92 (1953);

– H.C. Urey e H. Craig, The composition of the stone meteorites and The origin of The meteorites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 4, pp. 36-82 (1953);

— H. Craig, Carbon 13 in plants and the relationships between carbon 13 and carbon 14 variations in nature. Journal of Geology 62, pp. 115-149 (1954);

– H. Craig, The natural distribution of radiocorbon and the exchange time of carbon dioxide between atmosphere and sea. Tellus 9, pp. 1-7 (1957);

– H. Craig, Isotopic variations in meteoric waters. Science 133,pp. 1702-1703 (1961);

– H. Craig, The natural distribution of radiocarbon: Mixing rates in the sea and residence times of carbon and water. Earth Science and Meteoritics (F.G. Houtermans volume, North-Holland, Amsterdam), Chapter 6, pp. 103-114(1963);

— H. Craig e L.I. Gordon, Nitrous oxide in The ocean and The marine atmosphere. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 27, pp. 949-955 (1963);

– H. Craig, The isotopic geochemistry of water and carbon in geothermal areas. Nuclear Geology on Geothermal Areas, Proceedings of the First Spoleto Conference, Spoleto, ltaly, edited by E. Tongiorgi (V. Lischi & Figli, Pisa), pp. 17-53 (1963);

– H. Craig e L.I. Gordon, Deuterium and oxygen 18 variations in the ocean and the marine atmosphere. Stable Isotopes in Oceanographic Studies and Paleotemperatures, Proceedings of the Third Spoleto Conference, Spoleto, ltaly, edited by E. Tongiorgi (V. Lischi & Figli, Pisa), pp. 9-130 (1965);

– H. Craig, The measurement of oxygen isotope paleotemperatures. lbid,, pp. 161-182 (1965);

– H. Craig, Abyssal carbon and radiocarbon in the Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research 74, pp. 549 1-5506 (1969);

– H. Craig e V. Craig, Greek marbles: Determination of provenance by isotopic analysis. Science 176, pp. 401- 403 (1972);

– H. Craig, A scavenging model for trace elements in The deep sea. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 23, pp. 149-159 (1974);

– H. Craig e J.E. Lupton, Primordial neon, helium, and hydrogen in oceanic basalts. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 31, pp.369-385 (1976);

– J.E. Lupton, R.F. Weiss e H. Craig, Mantle helium in the Red Sea brines. Nature 266, pp. 244-246 (1977);

– J.E. Lupton, R.F. Weiss e H. Craig, Mantle helium in hydrothermal plumes in the Galapagos Rift. Nature 267, pp. 603-604 (1977);

– ME. Fiadeiro e H. Craig, Three-dimensional modeling of tracers in the deep Pacific Ocean: I. Salinity and oxygen. Journal of Marine Research 36, pp. 323-355 (1978);

– H. Craig e J.E. Lupton, Helium-3 and Mantle Volatiles in the Ocean and the Oceanic Crust. Chapter 11 in: The Sea, Volume 7: The Oceanic Lithosphere, edited by C. Emiliani, (J. Wiley and sons), pp. 391-428 (1981);

– H. Craig. Crustal processes of The Mid-Ocean Ridge. Science 213, pp. 3 1-40 (1981). (East Pacific Rise Study Group: R. Ballard, H. Craig, et al.);

– J.E. Lupton e H. Craig, A Major Helium-3 Source at 15°S on the East Pacific Rise. Science 214, pp. 13-18 (1981);

– H. Craig, Introduction: GEOSECS Atlas Volumes. Vi (1981) and Vols 2-7, pp. ix-xv. (International Decade of Oceanography, National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.);

– H. Craig e CC. Chou, Methane: The record in polar ice cores. Geophysical Research Letters 99, 1221-1224 (1982);

– J. Francheteau, A. Yelles-Chaouche e H. Craig, The Juan Fernandez microplate north of the Pacific – Nazca – Antarctic plate junction at 35°S. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 86,253-268 (1987);

– H. Craig, Y. Horibe, e T. Sowers, Gravitational separation of gases and isotopes in Polar ice caps. Science 242, 1675-1578 (1988);

– R.J. Poreda, A.W.A. Jeffrey, I,R. Kaplan, e H. Craig, Magmatic helium in subduction-zone natural gases. Chemical Geology 71, 199-210 (1988);

– R. Poreda e H. Craig, Helium isotope ratios in Circum Pacific volcanic arcs. Nature 338, 473-478 (1989);

– K.-R. Kim e H. Craig, N-15 and 0-18 characteristics of nitrous oxide: A global perspective. Science 262, 1855- 1857 (1993);

– K.A. Farley e H. Craig, Atmospheric argon contamination of ocean island basalt olivine phenocrysts. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 58, 2509-2517 (1994);

– TE. Cerling e H. Craig, Geomorphology and in-situ cosmogenic isotopes, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 22, 273-3 17 (1994);

– H. Craig e RC. Wiens, Gravitational enrichment of 84Kr/ 36Ar ratios in Polar Ice Caps: A measure of firn thickness and accumulation temperature. Science 271, 1708- 1710 (1996).

(Oktober 1998)

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