1998 Balzan Prize for Geochemistry
HARMON CRAIG, born in New York City on 15 March 1926, is a US citizen.
Present position: Research Professor of Geochemistry and Oceanography, Graduate Department and Geological Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and Revelle College, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla.
Career: Research Associate, Enrico Fermi Institute for Nuclear Studies, University of Chicago, 1951-1955;
Since 1955, at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California; Chairman, Department of Earth Sciences, UCSD, and Division of Earth Sciences, SIO, 1965- 1968.
Visiting Professor at the University of Pisa, Laboratory of Nuclear Geology, and at the University of Bern, Institute of Physics.
Editor (1971-1988) of the Earth and Planetary Science Letters, and member of the Editorial Board (1987-1997) of the Journal or Volcanology and Geothermal Research. He has received many American and international Honors and Awards.
He has been the Chief Scientist in about 70 Expeditions at sea and on land.
Among his most important publications we mention:
– H. Craig, The geochemistry of the stable carbon isotopes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 3, pp. 53-92 (1953);
– H.C. Urey e H. Craig, The composition of the stone meteorites and The origin of The meteorites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 4, pp. 36-82 (1953);
— H. Craig, Carbon 13 in plants and the relationships between carbon 13 and carbon 14 variations in nature. Journal of Geology 62, pp. 115-149 (1954);
– H. Craig, The natural distribution of radiocorbon and the exchange time of carbon dioxide between atmosphere and sea. Tellus 9, pp. 1-7 (1957);
– H. Craig, Isotopic variations in meteoric waters. Science 133,pp. 1702-1703 (1961);
– H. Craig, The natural distribution of radiocarbon: Mixing rates in the sea and residence times of carbon and water. Earth Science and Meteoritics (F.G. Houtermans volume, North-Holland, Amsterdam), Chapter 6, pp. 103-114(1963);
— H. Craig e L.I. Gordon, Nitrous oxide in The ocean and The marine atmosphere. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 27, pp. 949-955 (1963);
– H. Craig, The isotopic geochemistry of water and carbon in geothermal areas. Nuclear Geology on Geothermal Areas, Proceedings of the First Spoleto Conference, Spoleto, ltaly, edited by E. Tongiorgi (V. Lischi & Figli, Pisa), pp. 17-53 (1963);
– H. Craig e L.I. Gordon, Deuterium and oxygen 18 variations in the ocean and the marine atmosphere. Stable Isotopes in Oceanographic Studies and Paleotemperatures, Proceedings of the Third Spoleto Conference, Spoleto, ltaly, edited by E. Tongiorgi (V. Lischi & Figli, Pisa), pp. 9-130 (1965);
– H. Craig, The measurement of oxygen isotope paleotemperatures. lbid,, pp. 161-182 (1965);
– H. Craig, Abyssal carbon and radiocarbon in the Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research 74, pp. 549 1-5506 (1969);
– H. Craig e V. Craig, Greek marbles: Determination of provenance by isotopic analysis. Science 176, pp. 401- 403 (1972);
– H. Craig, A scavenging model for trace elements in The deep sea. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 23, pp. 149-159 (1974);
– H. Craig e J.E. Lupton, Primordial neon, helium, and hydrogen in oceanic basalts. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 31, pp.369-385 (1976);
– J.E. Lupton, R.F. Weiss e H. Craig, Mantle helium in the Red Sea brines. Nature 266, pp. 244-246 (1977);
– J.E. Lupton, R.F. Weiss e H. Craig, Mantle helium in hydrothermal plumes in the Galapagos Rift. Nature 267, pp. 603-604 (1977);
– ME. Fiadeiro e H. Craig, Three-dimensional modeling of tracers in the deep Pacific Ocean: I. Salinity and oxygen. Journal of Marine Research 36, pp. 323-355 (1978);
– H. Craig e J.E. Lupton, Helium-3 and Mantle Volatiles in the Ocean and the Oceanic Crust. Chapter 11 in: The Sea, Volume 7: The Oceanic Lithosphere, edited by C. Emiliani, (J. Wiley and sons), pp. 391-428 (1981);
– H. Craig. Crustal processes of The Mid-Ocean Ridge. Science 213, pp. 3 1-40 (1981). (East Pacific Rise Study Group: R. Ballard, H. Craig, et al.);
– J.E. Lupton e H. Craig, A Major Helium-3 Source at 15°S on the East Pacific Rise. Science 214, pp. 13-18 (1981);
– H. Craig, Introduction: GEOSECS Atlas Volumes. Vi (1981) and Vols 2-7, pp. ix-xv. (International Decade of Oceanography, National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.);
– H. Craig e CC. Chou, Methane: The record in polar ice cores. Geophysical Research Letters 99, 1221-1224 (1982);
– J. Francheteau, A. Yelles-Chaouche e H. Craig, The Juan Fernandez microplate north of the Pacific – Nazca – Antarctic plate junction at 35°S. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 86,253-268 (1987);
– H. Craig, Y. Horibe, e T. Sowers, Gravitational separation of gases and isotopes in Polar ice caps. Science 242, 1675-1578 (1988);
– R.J. Poreda, A.W.A. Jeffrey, I,R. Kaplan, e H. Craig, Magmatic helium in subduction-zone natural gases. Chemical Geology 71, 199-210 (1988);
– R. Poreda e H. Craig, Helium isotope ratios in Circum Pacific volcanic arcs. Nature 338, 473-478 (1989);
– K.-R. Kim e H. Craig, N-15 and 0-18 characteristics of nitrous oxide: A global perspective. Science 262, 1855- 1857 (1993);
– K.A. Farley e H. Craig, Atmospheric argon contamination of ocean island basalt olivine phenocrysts. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 58, 2509-2517 (1994);
– TE. Cerling e H. Craig, Geomorphology and in-situ cosmogenic isotopes, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 22, 273-3 17 (1994);
– H. Craig e RC. Wiens, Gravitational enrichment of 84Kr/ 36Ar ratios in Polar Ice Caps: A measure of firn thickness and accumulation temperature. Science 271, 1708- 1710 (1996).